Soul > Part III > Chapter 37 > The Qubit of the Mind Information

The "bit" is a basic unit of information in computing and digital communications. A "qubit" refers to the quantum bit in quantum information processing. Like the classical bit, a "qubit" also has two basis states, usually denoted as "0" and "1". However, qubits can exhibit quantum phenomena such as superposition between basis states and entanglement among qubits.

Any two-level quantum-mechanical system can be used as a qubit. In the past, most developers of quantum computers (e.g., Google and IBM) employed superconducting circuits to create a quantum system (Hui, 2019). Recently, a growing number of researchers believed that the photon-based qubits (Slussarenko and Pryde, 2019) could be a more promising approach to quantum computing. An obvious advantage is that it can operate at room temperature, whereas the superconducting quantum computer must be maintained at the temperature near absolute zero.

Psi Quantum was founded in 2016, with the aim to build the first useful quantum computer by using silicon photonic qubits. This startup company has raised over $215 million. Another startup, Xanadu, raised $25M in 2018, $32M in 2019 and eyes $100M funding after it released world's first photonic quantum computer in the cloud on September 2, 2020.

The photon can have two quantum states, depending on its polarization, which can be generated by a laser beam passing through a polarizer. Importantly, the electromagnetic (EM) waves radiated from antenna are also polarized (Figure 37g). By convention, the state of polarization is based on the direction of the electric field. Thus, a vertical antenna (with respect to the Earth's surface) will generate vertically polarized photons while a horizontal antenna will generate horizontally polarized photons.


Figure 37g. (A) The electromagnetic wave generated by a straight vertical antenna, producing vertically polarized photon. [Source: Wikipedia]
(B) The EM wave created by a train of ions passing through ion channels. A pulse is generated by an ion.

The ion channel resembles a straight antenna in which oscillating electrons generate polarized EM waves (photons). Moreover, the mass of an ion (e.g., Na+) is more than 10 thousand times the mass of an electron. Therefore, ions can also radiate significant gravitational (GR) waves. As discussed in Section C, the GR waves could play an important role in quantum entanglement (Section B) as well as the formation of Bose-Einstein condensate (Section E).


Author: Frank Lee
Posted on: 2020-09-15