Geon Wireless Communication in the Brain
IV. Evidence from Seizure Progression



Recent studies have provided compelling evidence that widely separated microdomains are not synchronized at the seizure onset. Their synchronization increases as the seizure progresses. This paper shows that the long range synchronization could be achieved by electromagnetic (EM) stimulation primed by the extracellular electric field (ECEF). ECEF, which arises from non-radiative ionic motions, decreases with the square of the distance. Its value becomes negligible at long distance (> 300 μm). By contrast, the EM field, which is radiated from the accelerated ions as they pass through ion channels, decreases with the distance. The slow distance dependence enables EM fields to mediate long range synchronization. However, available evidence indicates that the EM fields generated by brain activities are insufficient to excite a neuron from its resting state. Neurons should first be "primed" by ECEF and/or synaptic inputs to a subthreshold state such that the EM fields can simultaneously excite them to achieve zero-lag long range synchronization among these neurons. A seizure could be terminated by the inhibition of free tubulin which are produced from microtubule depolymerization due to calcium overload - the same mechanism as the initial decrease in excitability following traumatic brain injury (Paper 13). This notion is supported by the findings that both trauma and seizure caused a refractory period of roughly 4 hours.


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