Geon Wireless Communication in the Brain
II. Evidence from Ultrasound Stimulation



The Microtubule Model for Excitability originally proposed for wireless communication in the brain (Paper 1) suggests that the external force, either electromagnetic (EM) or mechanical force, may cause microtubules to dissociate from the membrane at the axon initial segment (AIS), thereby enhancing excitability. The ultrasound produces mechanical pressure waves and thus could also act on the AIS microtubules to modulate excitability. The microtubules capable of sensing EM waves and regulating excitability are expected to exist only in the neurons participating in long range synchronization and other types of wireless communication. They are located in hippocampus (theta rhythm), primary motor cortex (beta rhythm), locus coeruleus (slow oscillations), and sensorimotor cortex (mu rhythm) (Paper 5). The low intensity focused ultrasound has been shown to excite neurons in these areas, consistent with the hypothesis that ultrasound and EM waves act on the same AIS microtubules. Several studies have also demonstrated that ultrasound stimulation of hippocampal neurons can increase BDNF level.


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